Wireless Power Transfer for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles

The published SAE J2954 standard established an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless power transfer (WPT) for light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. This SAE Information Report, SAE J2954/2, defines new power transfer levels in the higher power ranges needed for heavy-duty electric vehicles. This document addresses the requirements based on these charge levels and different vehicle applications as a first step in the process of completing a standard that the industry can use, both for private (fleet) and public wireless power transfer, including for charging electric vehicle batteries.

This document is the first step in a process towards HD static and dynamic WPT. This document lacks specific requirements and solutions, for which field data is needed. This document is not intended to be a guideline to enable manufacturers to design systems with minimal assistance; the goal is to inform readers about many of the things to consider in addressing this market and is an outline for the SAE J2954/2 committee for continued work. Based on data, there will be much more detail in the next version of this document. This document represents experience from the SAE J2954 light-duty standard along with active participation of industry providers developing and deploying non-standardized HD wireless power transfer systems with the goal of creating standardized systems in the future.

SAE J2954/2 addresses unidirectional power transfer, from grid to vehicle; bidirectional transfer may be evaluated for a future document. This document is intended to be used in stationary applications (power transfer while vehicle is not in motion) and some dynamic applications.

SAE J2954/2 covers requirements for safety, performance, and interoperability. Further development of detailed requirements will be based on performance-based evaluations of candidate designs, including evaluations against electrical safety and human safety standards.

SAE J2954/2 also covers recommended methods for evaluating electromagnetic emissions, but the requirements and test procedures are controlled by regulatory bodies.


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